|(1868-1954), Colonel, 1915; Major General, 1918; Lieutenenat General, 1925; General of Infantry, 1928.|
Received his education in the Hamina Cadet School 1882-1889 and in the University of Helsinki (teacher of physical education, 1898; Master of Laws, 1910).
Served in the Finnish army 1889-1906; solicitor 1910-1914; Commander of Regiment in the Russian army in the World War 1914-1917.
Chief of Staff of the Headquarters in the Finnish army in the War of Independence; Commander of Häme Group; Commander of the Western Army from 7 April till 16 May. In the Estonian War of Independence in 1919. Commander of the 3rd Division of the Finnish army 1919-1920 and of the 2nd Division 1921-1925; in special commissions of Commander-in-Chief 1939-1944.
Commander-in-Chief 1918 | Headquarters 1918
| Vaasa Senate | Hannes Ignatius
| Martin Wetzer | Harald Hjalmarson
| Ernst Linder | Gösta Theslöf | Jägers | St Petersburg Question | Relations with Germany | Cross of Liberty
| Eastern Karelia | Uusimaa Dragoon
Regiment | Fir Twig | Finnish Flag
| Swedish Brigade | Civil Guards | Jäger Conflict | Heikki Kekoni | Red Prisoners | Wilhelm Thesleff
| Aarne Sihvo | Rudolf Walden |
Air Force - Air Weapon | Red and White
Terrorism | Great Parade 16 May, 1918 | Åland Question | Monarchy | Mannerheim's Resignation
COURSE OF LIFE | FAMILY | TIME OF GROWTH | MILITARY CAREER | WAR OF INDEPENDENCE | REGENT 1918-1919 | CIVILIAN | DEFENCE COUNCIL | COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF 1939-1946 | PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC 1944-1946 | RETIREMENT | SPECIAL TOPICS | SEARCH